Home

Cucumber data table multiple lines

I was wondering if anyone has ever successfully used multiline values in a cucumber data table. I have not been able to come up with a working solution. I am working with smth like this: Given i have a web service. When i make a request to link using filtering on: |test1|<testvalue1>| |test2|<testvalue2>| |test3|<testvalue3> Cucumber Data Tables can be used to add multiple parameters in a Step Definition in a tabular form rather than putting all the parameters in the Gherkin statement. This is much easier to read and multiple rows of data can be passed in the same step. Let's take some Cucumber Data Tables Example: Cucumber Data Tables Example in Jav Working with multiple data in Cucumber. We might need to supply multiple data instead of hardcoded value passed in steps from feature files, this happens most of the time while working with your project. This can be done using DataTable class available in Cucumber, basically DataTables are of type List<List<String>> Difference between Scenario Outline & Data Table. Scenario Outline: This uses Example keyword to define the test data for the Scenario; This works for the whole test; Cucumber automatically run the complete test the number of times equal to the number of data in the Test Set; Test Data: No keyword is used to define the test data Cucumber. When we have multiple test data to pass in a single step of a feature file, one way is to pass multiple parameters and another way is to use Data Tables. Data Tables is a data structure provided by cucumber. It helps you to get data from feature files to Step Definitions

Multiline values in cucumber datatables - Stack Overflo

Cucumber Data Tables Example in Java - JavaPointer

  1. In the above feature file, we can see that it looks a bit complex at first glance due to using And multiple times. So, to reduce such type of complexity, we can use Data Table . Data table involves a set of input parameters, and these parameters are provided to a single tag such as GIVEN, WHEN, or THEN
  2. g. So... parsing Data Tables should be similar to Examples? If not, then how to assign the columns to a set of variables in a Data Table? Here's an exampl
  3. Data tables. When steps have a data table, they are passed an object with methods that can be used to access the data. with column headers hashes: returns an array of objects where each row is converted to an object (column header is the key); rows: returns the table as a 2-D array, without the first row; without column header
  4. Cucumber 3 supports a few more types (String, Integer, Float, Double, Byte, Short, Long, BigInteger, and BigDecimal). It isn't very complicated to convert a one-column data table into a list of numbers. Let's continue with an example where a two-column data table is converted into a Map. Convert a two-column data table to a Ma
  5. Cucumber Scenario data table and Scenario Outline data table 1.Cucumber Scenario data table. Sample feature file contents as below: Feature: Login and Logout Action Scenario: Successful Login with Valid Credentials Given User is on Application Home Page . When User Navigates to Application LogIn Page. And User enters UserName and Password and click submit butto
  6. Cucumber for JavaScript. Contribute to cucumber/cucumber-js development by creating an account on GitHub

Working with multiple data using DataTable in Cucumber for

Cucumber is not designed to support multi-column iterations, but it is possible to make it work. Here, I want to try each combination of path and role. This is the Cucumber Gherkin: Scenario: c.. Scenario outline basically replaces variable/keywords with the value from the table. Each row in the table is considered to be a scenario. Let's continue with the same example of Facebook feature. So far we have been executing one scenario: Upon providing the correct user name, is successful Each line below the header represents an individual run of the test case with the respective data. As a result, if there are 3 lines below the header in the Examples table, the script will run 3 times with its respective data. 2) Need to update the Statement in the feature file, which tells Cucumber to enter username & Password In nightwatch, to transform a cucumber data table to an array, we use hashes When('the user deletes the following files', (dataTable) { const filesToDelete = dataTable.hashes() console.log(filesToDelete); /* It returns : [ {files: 'myCollegeProject'}, {files: 'interviewQuestions'} ] */ for (const file in filesToDelete) { this.delete(file) } }

Data Tables in Cucumber Data table usage in Cucumber Jav

  1. Example 3: Using Cucumber DataTable to get all inputs In the below stated Gherkin, inputs or list of numbers are represented in a Grid called DataTable. Given user wants to sum the following.
  2. Cucumber provides a rich API for manipulating tables from within step definitions. See the Data Table API reference reference for more details. Spoken Languages. The language you choose for Gherkin should be the same language your users and domain experts use when they talk about the domain. Translating between two languages should be avoided
  3. Cucumber can be used to implement automated tests based on scenarios described in your Gherkin feature files. Step Arguments. In the example given in step definitions, Cucumber extracts the text 48 from the step, converts it to an int and passes it as an argument to the method function block function function.. The number of parameters in the method function block function function has to.
  4. Summary Provide a simple (one-liner) to convert a data table to a list of objects: registry.defineDataTableType(DataTableType.entry(Author.class)) Also provide a simple (one-liner) to convert a cell into a string wrapper value object: registry.defineDataTableType(DataTableType.cell(AirportCode.class)) Details entry uses Jackson Databind's ObjectMapper to convert a table entry (Map<String.
  5. Cucumber data table multiple lines. Multiline values in cucumber datatables, datatable cucumber bdd multiline feature-file. I was wondering if anyone has ever successfully used multiline values in a cucumber data table. You can use triple quotes (''' blahblah multiline ''') for passing additional data inside step. But not sure if it works in datatables - Grasshopper Nov 14 '17 at 13:17 Yes.
  6. List<String> nodeData = Lists.newArrayList(nodeName, componentType); List<List<String>> raw = Lists.newArrayList(); raw.add(nodeData); DataTable dataTable = DataTable. create (raw); // Create each application and store in CURRENT_APPS for (java.util.Map.Entry<String, String> request : applicationRequests.entrySet()) { I_create_a_new_application_with_name_and_description_and_node_templates(request.getKey(), request.getValue(), dataTable); CURRENT_APPLICATIONS.put(request.getKey(), CURRENT.
  7. Parameter types let you convert parameters from cucumber-expressions to objects. Data table and doc string types let you convert data tables and doc strings to objects. Like step definitions, type definitions are part of the glue. When placed on the glue path Cucumber will detect them automatically. For example, the following class registers a custom Author data table type: For example.

Multiple Test Data using Data table in Cucumber a couple of years ago . Cucumber When we have multiple test data to pass in a single step of a feature file, one way is to pass multiple parameters and another way is to use Data Tables. Data Tables is a data structure provided by cucumber. It helps you to get data from feature files to Step. can also use multiple lines. Scenario Outline Allows a scenario to use its own data table for parameters. We indicate placeholders within the scenario outline using angle brackets (<.. >) where we want real values to be substituted. The scenario outline itself is useless without an Examples table, which lists rows of values to be substituted for each placeholder. In a scenario outline. Pyramiding QTL for multiple lateral branching in cucumber using inbred backcross lines Matthew D. Robbins Æ Michael D. Casler Æ Jack E. Staub Received: 16 January 2007/Accepted: 21 January 2008/Published online: 5 February 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Multiple lateral branching (MLB) is a quantitatively inherited trait associated with yield in cucumber (Cucumis. In this video we will develop Cucumber Utilities to support multiple DataTable rows in Selenium framework development.#ExecuteAutomation #Udemy #Selenium #Cu..

537 538 539 # File 'lib/cucumber/multiline_argument/data_table.rb', line 537 def exception @exception en 606 607 608 # File 'lib/cucumber/multiline_argument/data_table.rb', line 606 def == ( def = Cucumber supports the data table. The first row is considered as the column and the rows next to it are the data for the scripts. #6) Cucumber Transpose. This is a slight modification to the Cucumber data table. Here the first column would be considered as column and the columns next are considered as data for the scripts. #7) Cucumber Multi. In the following post I will explain what are the possible representations of DataTables in Cucumber. Intellij IDEA 2016.2 CE is used as IDE. Target audience: QA Automation engineers / developers DISCLAIMER: It is assumed that reader has some experience with Cucumber test tool.. The proble Cucumber supports Data Driven Testing using Scenario Outline and Examples keywords. Creating a feature file with Scenario Outline and Example keywords will help to reduce the code and testing multiple scenarios with different values. Scenario Outline. This keyword lets you run the same scenario for two or more different input data. It basically replaces value assigned in the variable from the.

Multiple Test Data using Data table in Cucumber QA Tech Hu

Gherkin is a line-oriented language using line endings, indentations and keywords to define documents. Each non-blank line usually starts with a Gherkin keyword, followed by an arbitrary text, which is usually a description of the keyword. The whole structure must be written into a file with the feature extension to be recognized by Cucumber. Here is a simple Gherkin document example: Feature. to me, multi-line text content of cells looks much better with normal text baseline settings than it does with the usual table row separation. for table headings, vertical centering of multiple lines doesn't look so good; they look better aligned at the bottom. here's the definition i used for that: \newcommand{\thead}[2][.75in]{% \vbox{\hsize#1\baselineskip11pt\centering\vspace*{3pt}#2\par.

To plot multiple lines in one chart, we can either use base R or install a fancier package like ggplot2. Using Base R. Here are two examples of how to plot multiple lines in one chart using Base R. Example 1: Using Matplot. If you have a dataset that is in a wide format, one simple way to plot multiple lines in one chart is by using matplot: #Create a fake dataset with 3 columns (ncol=3. Publish, browse, search, and organize your Cucumber features on the web. Sign in; Home Public projects; Project: Cucumber Publisher: Cucumber. Browse documentation; Keyword search Scenario outlines. @spawn Copying and pasting scenarios to use different values quickly becomes tedious and repetitive. Scenario outlines allow us to more concisely express these examples through the use of a. The output of the previous R programming syntax is shown in Figure 1: It's a ggplot2 line graph showing multiple lines. Example 2: Plotting Two Lines in Same ggplot2 Graph Using Data in Long Format. In Example 1 you have learned how to use the geom_line function several times for the same graphic. However, this methodology is not convenient for a large number of lines, since we would have to. Multiple lines are easy. Just use rn like in . messageBottom: function() {return 'rn this is the first line preceeded by an empty line' + 'rn this is the second line' + 'rn rn this is the third line preceeded by an empty line';} share | improve this answer. answered Nov 10 at 11:00. rf1234. 402 5 7. this works thanks a lot - ArchDevOps Nov 10 at 11:06. you are welcome. In case you have more. So is there any way to take a data table in PowerApps and patch the whole table into multi-line text field that is sitting in SharePoint? There is always at most 5-6 rows in 2 columns in the data table, so I'm not worried about it being to much data to patch through. Thank you in advance

Let's take some Cucumber Data Tables Example: Cucumber Data Tables Example in Java Data Table without Header Example. Here's an example on how. or you can pass in a file with a list of scenarios using @-notation. The line number can fall anywhere within the body of a scenario, including steps, tags, comments, description, data tables or doc strings. For scenario outlines, if the line hits one. In summary, if you need to have a table cell span multiple lines when writing Markdown, use the HTML <br> tag, as shown. technology. Links: front page alvin on twitter search privacy terms & conditions. alvinalexander.com is owned and operated by Valley Programming, LLC In regards to links to Amazon.com, As an Amazon Associate I (Valley Programming, LLC) earn from qualifying purchases This. Feature File in Cucumber Testing with Cucumber Testing, Tutorial, Introduction, Cucumber, What is BDD, Cucumber Testing Works, Software Tools, Advantage of Cucumber Tools, Features, Cucumber Java Testing, cucumber Command Line Options, Cucumber Installation, Environment Setup for Cucumber, etc

Cucumber Data Tables Baeldun

Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube This could be done by using the scenario datatable but it would generate multiple tests and use only one row by test. We can use a step datatable to fix that problem: Click the image to enlarge it. As with the Gherkin syntax, CucumberStudio expects a table formatted with | characters. The table is set as an action word argument. The test case will look like this: Click the image to enlarge it. Cucumber reads the feature file line-by-line, matches it with the relevant step in the step definition file, and executes the entire script. The output will be as follows

Cucumber - Data Tables - Tutorialspoin

  1. Let's cover Datatables in a separate section. Cucumber's Datatables in practice. In Cucumber, we can pass data structures to our tests. This is very convenient because we avoid step repetition in Gherkin, which improves readability. For our test cases, we can quickly define preconditions for multiple users in a more visual way. See Listing.
  2. Sorry I am very new to the ADO.NET framework, but I have a good bit of the code working. I am creating a XML Config GUI tool that will limit the amount of tedious typing a person will have to do. Anyways, the question that I pose is about the Data table's columns and rows. I have a column which · Hi greggtr316, Please try this: for (int.
  3. Often you might wish to initialise multiple tables with a single statement. This is trivially done by using a jQuery selector which will pick up multiple tables. The tables are independent for user control (i.e. user controlled paging on one table does not effect the others), but they do share the initialisation parameters given (for example if you specific the Spanish language file, all.
  4. g conventions. Running Cucumber. Running Cucumber. Introduction . Integrating Cucumber with Maven. Running Cucumber from the Ter
  5. [Cucumber] Common scenarios in multiple feature files and multiple steps definition file Showing 1-17 of 17 messages [Cucumber] Common scenarios in multiple feature files and multiple steps definition file : shivi malviya: 11/22/13 4:04 AM: Hi, We have developed a test framework using Cucumber. We are facing problem when we have common scenarios in multiple feature files and each feature file.

This tutorial describes how to create a ggplot with multiple lines. Login | Register; Menu . Home; Learn. Courses; Lessons; Tutorials + Topics. Cluster Analysis in R + Pricing; Shop. Popular Products. Practical Guide to Cluster Analysis in R. Rated 4.72 out of 5 € 37.00 € 27.95; Machine Learning Essentials: Practical Guide in R. Rated 4.67 out of 5 € 37.00 € 29.95; Practical Guide To. Codota search - find any Java class or metho

How to implement the cucumber data table for different JSON post using java? Ask Question Asked 3 years, 4 months ago. Active 3 years, 1 month ago. Viewed 7k times 2. I'm trying to post different json body , but same set of set of steps . ie., request builder, header and assertion. Is it possible to implement cucumber data table for different set of json? automated-testing cucumber rest-api. Line Charts with Multiple Series We now show how to create charts in Excel with more than one line on the same chart. Example 1 - Create a line chart comparing the average income and rent for a sample of people in their thirties by age based on the data in Figure 1

Line 4) In this line we define the action we need to perform. Line 4) In this line we define the expected outcome or result. Step 5) Writing selenium testrunner script for Selenium Cucumber framework design . Here we create 'TestRunner' package and then 'Runner.java' class file under it Objective We are going to pass parameters from Cucumber feature file to its corresponding steps file. What we are going to use: IntelliJ as IDE Selenium (for testing) TestNG Cucumber for TestNG dependency Cucumber Java dependency Simple parameter passing FirstTest.feature Lets create a feature file for Cucumber steps. Make sure that Cucumber and Gherkin plugi The present invention relates to a multiple disease resistant inbred cucumber seed. The present invention also relates to a method of producing a multiple disease resistant inbred cucumber seed, via the backcross method, combining resistance to target leafspot disease in one C. sativus L. cucumber cultivar with resistant to zucchini yellow mosaic virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and papaya. The Data table control shows a dataset in a format that includes column headers for each field that the control shows. As an app maker, you have full control over which fields appear and in what order. Like the Gallery control, the Data table control maintains a Selected property that points to the selected row. Therefore, you can link the Data table control to other controls. Capabilities. 348 349 350 # File 'lib/cucumber/multiline_argument/data_table.rb', line 348 def table @table en

How to execute multiple feature files in Cucumber - YouTube

Working with Cucumber Data table - AutomationTestingHu

Insert multiple lines of text into separate table cells in Word I have several lines of text (152 total) which are not separated by anything (no special characters, tabs, commas, etc). I would like to insert these lines of text into their own separate cells. I tried the option Insert->Table->Convert text into table but it didn't work because the lines of text don't have anything to separate. Data table in cucumber should be formed using a Pipe ( | )symbol, and every new line will be considered as new data. We can have n-number of tables and n-number of columns in the data table in cucumber BDD. The parameters which you want to read from the data table must be mentioned inside the <>. Parameter name inside the angular brace should match with the column name in the Examples we.

How to pass data to Cucumber Steps using Maps in Data Tables

Cucumber Difference between Examples Table & Data Table

Step Definitions that match a plain text Step with a multiline argument table will receive it as an instance of Table. A Table object holds the data of a table parsed from a feature file and lets you access and manipulate the data in different ways Understanding the problem when using Cucumber Data table without Async : Assume, you want to test some objects exists on the page. You may want to pass data table in Cucumber scenario to assert multiple objects. Suppose, I want to write Cucumber tests for my E-commerce application. I want to write a test for shopping cart check out behavior. When I add item to the shopping cart and finally I. This article provides various practical examples of basic cucumber data driven testing. The examples contain scenarios no how to pass multiple string parameters, integer and double parameters, how to use generic regular expression in Cucumber feature files. Skip to content; Skip to primary sidebar ; AutomationTestingHub. Selenium, Appium, Cucumber and more !!! Search this website. Practical. In BDD and Cucumber, each step can only have either Data Table or Doc String, not both. If you want to use both of them in your scenario, you should put them in two different steps. And in the code, cache the data in the World object until all the data are available and then do the operation. In the above example, we store the table data in the World, and use it in the second step definition. This is much easier to read and multiple rows of data can be passed in the same step. Let's take some Cucumber Data Tables Example: Cucumber Data Tables Example in Jav Data Tables in Cucumber are quite interesting and can be used in many ways. DataTables are also used to handle large amounts of data. They are quite powerful but not the most.

To further test the function of CsSWEET7a in fruit, we generated multiple CsSWEET7a overexpression (OE) lines and RNAi lines (Supplemental Figure S5, A-C). The CsSWEET7a expression level significantly increased in the vascular bundle of either 9 DAA (Supplemental Figure S5D) or 15 DAA fruits in the OE lines, and it was significantly reduced in the RNAi lines compared to wild type plants. Other experts are more permissive of multiple When-Then pairs, though. Most examples I could find from leading sources such as The Cucumber Book exhibit strict Given-When-Then order for Gherkin scenarios, but other sources such as the online JBehave documentation show scenarios with multiple When-Then pairs boldly on the front page Cucumber came with a solution for reducing this effort by using the concept of Scenario Outline coupled with Examples `null`'s for `String` class · Issue #1617 · cucumber/cucumber , The empty cell is not converted to (Double)null in Cucumber 4.3.0, as it happened in just adding new DataTableType definition results in io.cucumber. datatable. [Java] Support empty strings and null values in. So, you and your team have decided to make test automation a priority. You plan to use behavior-driven development to shift left with testing. You read the BDD 101 Series up through the previous post.You picked a good language for test automation. You even peeked at Cucumber-JVM or another BDD framework on your own. That's great! Big step

Data Table in Cucumber - javatpoin

Data Table differs from Scenario Outline's Example Table

  1. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.. Visit Stack Exchang
  2. 533 534 535 # File 'lib/cucumber/multiline_argument/data_table.rb', line 533 def exception @exception en
  3. ent advantages of using Cucumber
  4. Data table implementation? What is the different annotation we can use in the test runner class? What is the difference between hooks and background? What is Tag and how to use it? What is the value of cucumber? How can we re-use data in multiple steps in the same scenario? The execution order of Hooks? These are other few interview questions that I came across: What is BDD and explain in.

cucumber-js/data_table_interface

This article deals with generating ExtentReports reports for Cucumber-JVM using a Maven Plugin. The Cucumber JSON report is used as the basis for creating the reports. The plugin can be used to create Spark, JSON and PDF reports. The artifact supports JSON report created with Cucumber-JVM 4.3.0 and above. IMPORTANT - ExtentReports has been updated to version 5, which has resulted in multiple. Cucumber Excel Test Script Automation. The following configuration needs to be done. Test Design Strategy: Create an excel reader utility, which has the ability to take an excel sheet's 'columnname' as input parameter and in return, it will give the excel sheet's 'columnvalue' for that 'columnanme'

Working with Cucumber Data table - AutomationTestingHub

Data tables in Cucumber 3 - Think Cod

In our last post we discussed getting started with cucumber for Java, in this post we will discuss working with multiple data using DataTable in Cucumber for Java.We have already discussed about working with multiple data in Specflow of C#, which has Table class, but here in Cucumber for Java they have class named DataTable. Working with multiple data in Cucumber Cucumber-JVM support many. recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (from a cross between the salt tolerant line CG104 and salt sensitive line CG37) was used to study the genetic mechanism of salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings. At the same time, the candidate genes within the mapping region were cloned and analyzed. The results showed that salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings is a quantitative trait controlled by. Get code examples like how to tab multiple line in vs code instantly right from your google search results with the Grepper Chrome Extension Format Data Table. After that, you write the data separated with | symbol. If you type the delimiters manually, Visual Studio will format the table for you, but if you paste the data, you will have to do it manually. Test Names. For each row, Specflow will generate a separate test. Keep in mind that the names are based on the first parameter of the table (you can see that in the use case image.

Video: Cucumber Scenario data table and Scenario Outline data

Multiple Test Data using Data table in Cucumber | QA Tech HubMS Excel - How to model my data in order to produce a

cucumber-js/data_tables

Just plain old java class acts as a fixture and it offers multiple style of testing (command table, simple data table, decision tables, and custom tables) Vendor Library requirement: cucumber test Java class needs cucumber library to be imported: no need to include any FitNesse related jars except if use any the optional features: Test method. The data table in cucumber should be formed using a Pipe ( | )symbol, and every new line will be considered as new data. Previously we passed the parameter as String to enter the username and password. Let us understand how to enter the username and password using data tables in cucumber. Example program : In .features file

JUnit Cucumber Tutorial 06 - Scenario Outline Data Tables

SpecFlow is the #1 .NET open source framework for Behavior Driven Development, Acceptance Test Driven Development and Specification by Example.With over 10m downloads on NuGet, SpecFlow is trusted by teams around the world Hello everyone, I am using jest cucumber on top of jest puppeteer & into jest.setup file under afterEach I am capturing the screen shot. but unable to linked them to cucumber report ? (Cucumber.json file is created but unable linked failed screenshot) jest-cucumber version 2.0.1 Use multiple scenario outline variables to construct string. 02:53. Combining Scenarios, Background and Scenario Outlines . 02:50. Combining Doc Strings and Scenario Outlines. 03:11. Data Tables. 04:31. Compare Data Table with any other type of table. 03:25. Maps in Data Table. 04:04. Share Random Data between steps using static variable. 03:54. Quiz - Data Driven Testing. 1 question. Cucumber. The Cucumber template can be used on IntelliJ IDEA and Eclipse. For details, Run the Maven build from the command line by running the following command from the project's main directory (where the pom file is located): mvn clean install. Open the LeanFtFeature.feature file, and write the test scenario using the Gherkin language. Example: Feature: Shop Scenario: Check speakers price Given I. Now we have integrated Cucumber with Maven, running Cucumber from the Terminal will not be a problem. Running any test framework from the Terminal has its own advantages, such as overriding the run configurations mentioned in the code. So how do we run Cucumber test cases from the Terminal? Let's find out in our next section UI component infrastructure and Material Design components for mobile and desktop Angular web applications

  • Death penalty essay.
  • Burg Frankenstein Corona.
  • Comfee mpph 09crn7.
  • Schlauchverbinder 16 mm HORNBACH.
  • Vater unser Russisch.
  • Landfrauenküche 2020 kandidaten.
  • Boston Harvard.
  • Stellenausschreibung Reinigungskraft.
  • MASCHINE 2 Standalone starten.
  • HaspaJoker Telefonnummer.
  • PayPro contact.
  • Partner Ideen.
  • Outlook öffnet keine Links mehr Firefox.
  • Weihnachtsbox Süßigkeiten.
  • Kulturelles erbe köln pieroth.
  • Barkeeper Spiel.
  • Absolut relax Radio.
  • Setup ESP8266 Arduino.
  • Gegendtalerhof Öffnungszeiten.
  • Mitsubishi Evo.
  • DASP online.
  • Suspect Unter Verdacht Stream.
  • Uniklinik Freiburg Chirurgie parken.
  • Belichtungstabelle Röntgen Kinder.
  • Duschpaneel Schlauchanschluss.
  • APÜ Strafrecht.
  • Zeitungsbericht schreiben Übungen pdf.
  • HaspaJoker Telefonnummer.
  • Trennung Stromvertrag.
  • Baekhyun musikgruppen.
  • Carey Mulligan.
  • Spielzeug 18 24 monate.
  • Skype Lautstärke ändern Android.
  • GraphPad Prism Mac.
  • Skyrim quests that conflict.
  • 5h in ms.
  • Vergessen was man gerade gemacht hat.
  • SketchUp Dachschräge.
  • Top Autoteile Potsdam Telefonnummer.
  • Mini Bluetooth Maus.
  • WSG Mietkauf.